Leasan 25

today                      an-diugh

cattle                      crodh, cruidh, cruidh (fir)

singer                      seinneadair, seinneadair, seinneadairean (fir)

hot                          teth, teotha

snow                       sneachd, sneachda (fir)

tall                           àrd, àirde

or                             no

Exercise 48

A’ bheil sneachd ann? Chan eil sneachd ann an-diugh. Tha uisge ann. Tha an latha fliuch ach teth. Nach eil crodh ann? Tha crodh ann gu dearbh! An tusa an seinneadair? Cha mhise an seinneadair, ach ‘Se an duine àrd an seinneadair. Tha crodh dubh agus geal ann. Am bheil am bainne fuar no teth? Chan eil e teth ach blath. An e am fear seo am ministear no an croitear? ‘Se seo an croitear. Tha aran gu leòr ann an-diugh

Exercise 49

Is there wine? There is plenty of white wine but there is no red wine at all. There is a spoon and a for but there is no knife. Your animal is black but my cattle are white. Their house is yellow indeed. Is the tall woman the singer? That one is the singer. We are lazy today. Sometimes the tidsear is generous, but not today. This book of yours is big, long, and difficult.


Note: We already met the existential use of ann in Lesson 20. Here we practise it some more.


Leasan 24

writer                      sgrìobhaiche, sgrìobhaiche, sgrìobhaichean (fir)

minister                  ministear, ministeir, minisearan (fir)

priest                      sagart, sagairt, sagartean (fir)

farmer                    tuathanach, tuathanaich, tuathanaich (fir)

fisherman              iasgair, iasgair, iasgairean (fir)

nurse                       banaltram, banaltram, banaltaim (boir)

crofter                    croitear, croiteir, croitearan (fir)


Exercise 46

An e Dòmhnall an sgrìobhaiche? Chan e Dòmhnall an sgrìobhaiche, ach ‘Se Dòmhnall an tuathanach. Nach e do mhàthair a’ bhanaltram? ‘Se. An tu am ministear? Cha mhise am ministear. A’ bheil an t-iasgair mór agus toilichte? Tha e mór ach chan eil e toilichte. Tha e trang. Chan e am ministear an sagart. ‘Se siud an croitear gu dearbh. Tha an latha math ann. Nach eil an t-aran seo math? Tha e math gu dearbh, tha e blàth agus geal. Chan eil an t-aran agam math idir, tha e dubh gu leòr! ‘Se an duine sin an sagart.

Exercise 47

Is Angus the soldier? Angus is not the soldier, he is the priest. Is the farmer Seumas? He is. Is the book red? The book is not red, it is blue. Is your boy busy? He is busy indeed. Is the good brother the writer? He is not the writer. The water is blue a-plenty. Is it warm or cold? It’s cold indeed. The short one is the minister. The industrious town is the busy town. The white path is easy but the green path is short. I am the messenger. Aren’t I the messenger? Isn’t Angus the crofter? He is the crofter.



Note: nurs is now commonly also used for “nurse”, but banaltram may be both used and preferred.

mise becomes cha mhise when the forming the negative with cha.

Leasan 23

grass                       feur, feòir, feòir (fir)

green                      uaine

blue                         gorm, guirme

red                           dearg, deirge

black                       dubh, duibhe

yellow                     buidhe

Exercise 44

Tha am feur gorm. Tha fion geal agus fion dearg ann. Tha an t-aran geal. Am bheil am bòrd dubh? Chan eil e dubh ach tha e buidhe. Nach eil am feur uaine? Chan eil e, ach tha e gorm gu dearbh. ‘Se an duine sin an tidsear gorm. ‘Se sin dearg, agus chan e seo dubh idir. Nach e an té siud sgoilear? Chan e. Tha mise toilichte gu leòr, ach am bheil thu toilichte? Chan eil seo an taigh agam, ach tha taigh uaine agam. Tha an t-each dubh ann.

Exercise 45

Is the grass green? It is green and dry. Is that Mary? That is not Mary, that is Margaret. This is Mary. The big one is red and the small one is yellow. This soldier is industrious and generous, but that soldier is lazy and he is not valuable. Sometimes the law is just, sometimes wicked. This forest is always green. The white milk is cold. My book is red and black.

Note: Gaelic colours are not quite the same as Engish colours. gorm is used for blue and green things, including grass, leaves, and ocean. uaine covers a spectrum between green and yellow-green. dearg is the colour of blood and fire, a vibrant red. gorm can also be used in the sense of ‘green’ as ‘inexperienced, raw-recruit’.

Leasan 22

Isn’t                         Chan (e)

Isn’t..?                    Nach e

person                    duine, duine, daoine (fir)

man, one               fear, fir, fir (fir)

woman, one          té (boir)

student                   sgoilear, soileir, sgoilearan (fir)

Exercise 42

An e Seoras? Chan e Seoras. ‘Se seo Seoras, ‘se sin Seumas. An e tu sgoilear? Nach e mise sgoilear, ach ‘se mi saighdear. Nach iad Màiri agus Dòmhnall? Chan iad Màiri agus Dòmhnall, ach is iad Seoras agus Màiread. ‘Se mise sgoilear math, agus ‘se an duine mór tidsear agam. ‘Se am fear mór tidsear, agus ‘se am fear beag sgoilear. Nach e an tè mhòr an tidsear? Chan e an tè seo an tidsear idir, ach ‘se an tè bheag an tidsear againn. Tha an sgoilear toilichte gu leòr ach chan eil an tidsear toilichte idir. Chan e mise an tidsear!

Exercise 43

Are you George? I am not George, I am Donald. Is she the doctor? She is not the doctor, but she is a soldier. My father is the teacher. That person is not a student. Isn’t the big man a teacher? He is a teacher. Is there rain? There is rain indeed. The wicked one is the lord, and the poor one is the messenger. Their animal is busy but happy. The rich one isn’t happy. The day is sometimes dry, sometimes wet, but always cold. He is the generous boy.

Note: fear and may be used to indicate either a person of that gender, or ‘one’, standing in for a noun that it clear from context or antecedent.

We now have Is (‘Se e), An e, Chan (e), Nach (e), which cover the four main forms of the Is verb.

Note that tè does not follow the regular pattern for feminine nouns with the article: you will see an tè rather than a thè.

Leasan 21

doctor                    dotair, dotair, dotairean (fir)

teacher                   tidsear, tidseir, tidsearan (fir)

soldier                    saighdear, saighdeir, saighdearan (fir)

I, me                       mise

Exercise 40

‘Se seo Dòmhnall. ‘Se sin Mairead. ‘Se Aonghas an tidsear. ‘Se Domhnall an saighdear. ‘Se mo bhràthair an dotair math. ‘Se do phiuthair an teachdaire leisg. ‘Se siud a’ mhil dhona. ‘Se mise an tidsear gu dearbh. An e a’ chaileag seo do phiuthair? ‘Se a’ chaileag seo mo phiuthair gu deabh. An tu Mairead? Is mise Mairead. ‘Se mise an dotair. Tha móran uisge ann. Tha an latha fuar. Tha e fliuch cuideachd. Tha an t-athair aingidh, ach tha am màthair aingidh agus chan eil i fial idir. Tha an t-àite sin fliuch gu leòr, agus tha e doirbh gu tric. Tha a’ bheatha aca doirbh cuideachd.

Exercise 41

This is James. That is Mary. James is my brother. Angus is my father. The little boy is Donald. Are they Margaret and Donald? They are Margaret and Donald. He is the teacher and she is the doctor. This is my good horse, and that is my bad horse. War is sometimes long and sometimes short, but it is always difficult. This is a good example. The good wine is the white wine. There is honey enough.

Note: In 19 we met Is which must be followed by a pronoun. In order to say that one noun (X) is another noun (Y), we use the contraction of Is + e = ’Se, in the form ’Se X Y, in English “X is Y”. An e is the question equivalent of ‘Se. When using seo, sin, siud the use of ‘Se may be dropped. Mise is an emphatic form of mi. All the pronouns have emphatic forms, which we will meet in due couse.

Leasan 20

also                      cuideachd

in existence        ann

plenty, enough  gu leòr

indeed                 gu dearbh

at all                     idir


Note: ann means ‘in’, but is used idiomatically to mean “in existence” or “there is”. So in exercise xx, Tha uisge ann – there is water; there is rain.


Exercise 38

A’ bheil an t-uisge ann? Tha uisge ann gu leòr. Nach eil an tighearna agaibh bearthach? Tha e bearthach, agus tha e toilichte cuidheachd. Am bheil a’ choille seo mór? Tha i mór gu dearbh. Am bheil thu trang? Chan eil mi trang idir. Tha spàin ann, agus tha forca ann. Am bheil an sgian ann? Chan eil an sgian ann idir. An e Seumas? Is e Seumas gu dearbh. An iad Màiri agus Aonghas? Is iad Màiri agus Aonghas gu dearbh. Am bheil an t-slighe seo furasda? Tha i furasda agus goirid cuideachd.

Exercise 39

Is the lord upright? Your lord is upright, and he is also wise, but our lord is wicked indeed. Isn’t it warm? It’s warm but wet. Is there a town? There is a town. Is there a white horse? There isn’t a white horse at all. His horse is valuable, but her horse is slazy. They are rich and generous also. The boy is industrious. There is a little rain.

Leasan 19

busy                     trang, trainge

happy                   toilichte

Is                           Is

Is…?                      An


Exercise 36

Is e Seumas. Is i Anna. Is sinn Seumas agus Anna. An e Seumas? Is e Seumas. An iad Seumas agus Anna? Is iad Màiri agus Aonghas. An sibh Màiri agus Anna? Is sibh Seumas agus Aonghas. Is i am màthair. Is e an t-athair. An e an teachdaire màth? Tha mi toilichte. A’ bheil thu trang? Chan eil mi trang, ach tha Màiri trang. Chan eil an tighearna trang, ach tha e toilichte. Is e tighearna màth.

Exercise 37

She is Mary. He is Angus. Is she Anna? She is Anna. Is he Angus? He is Angus. Are they Mary and Anna? Are we Seumas and Angus? You are Angus and Mary. He is the rich lord. She is the small girl. Mary is busy. Angus is happy. Isn’t Anna happy? She is not happy, but she is poor and busy.



Note: Until this point we have used tha and its forms for “to be”. We have also limited ourselves generally to sentences that predicate an adjective about a noun. The primary use of Is (remember, it is pronounced as “ish” in Gaelic) and its forms is to express an identity relation between two noun clauses, to say X is Y where both X and Y are ‘things’. Is is always followed by a pronoun.